Defense mechanisms are behaviors and actions that we do in order to protect ourselves. Object relations theory is a variation of psychoanalytic theory, which places less emphasis on biological based drives (such as the id) and more importance on consistent patterns of interpersonal relationships. Thus, in the latter case, people experience a truly internal PLOC even though the behavior is still instrumental—that is, done for some reasons other than the enjoyment of the activity itself. Klein, M. (1923). In his report on the case of Miss Lucie R., Freud asserted that it was primal repression that exerted an attraction on all other ideas or affects that were to be subsequently repressed: "When this process occurs for the first time there comes into being a nucleus and center of crystallization for the formation of a psychical group divorced from the ego - a group around which everything which would imply an acceptance of the incompatible idea subsequently collects" (Freud, 1893/1964, p. 123). Only through changes in Factor B, which is the mature dimension in this therapy, was it possible to distinguish individual therapy segments (see B in Figure 16.5) After a decrease in mature defenses from Session 1 to 20 in Segment 1, there is change from Session 21 to 34 to a relatively stable high defense level in Segment 2, which between Sessions 34 and 68 gives way to increased fluctuation in Segment 3. This echoes Freud’s aim to help patients achieve a state of ‘ordinary unhappiness’. Peter Fonagy, in Comprehensive Clinical Psychology, 1998. For example, ‘repression’ is generally thought of as being directed against painful internal thoughts or impulses, while ‘denial’ is directed against disturbing external stimuli, the perception of which would arouse painful feelings. Their names were well known to practicing analysts, and their operations were routinely noted and often interpreted in the course of psychoanalysis. Spontaneity and flexibility in responding to challenges also suffer impairment. In the case of the development of phobias, the subject uses the movement of … Unbearable negative feelings as well as positive loving emotions are projected onto external objects, as in Freud. Instead of anger, the baby feels grief. Psychic Defense Mechanisms There are some ways that infants can protect their fragile egos. Beside their often pathogenic consequences described in the classical psychoanalytic literature (e.g., Fenichel, 1945), defense mechanisms generate demonstrably positive effects. eval(ez_write_tag([[336,280],'simplypsychology_org-large-mobile-banner-2','ezslot_19',867,'0','0'])); Lucy Etherington is a published writer and psychotherapist based in Suffolk, England. //Enter domain of site to search. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. They range from External Regulation, which is the least autonomous, to Integrated Regulation, which is the most autonomous. A girl who takes out the garbage because she personally values family harmony and believes that her participation in this way will contribute to the harmonious functioning of the household is evidencing a greater sense of autonomy. Edward L. Deci, in Encyclopedia of Applied Psychology, 2004. Menzel, in Encyclopedia of Body Image and Human Appearance, 2012. In this case, the person attributed thoughts, feelings, motives, or desires that were perceived to be unacceptable to others, and accused them of those attributes. eval(ez_write_tag([[336,280],'simplypsychology_org-large-mobile-banner-1','ezslot_18',880,'0','0']));Projective Identification In the Depressive Position, a child learns to relate to its objects in a completely new way. These fantasies are psychic representations of unconscious id instincts; they should not be confused with the conscious fantasies of older children and adults. More than three decades of research has now shown that the quality of people's experience and performance vary as a function of the degree to which a behavior is autonomous or self-determined. J.K. Thompson, ... J.E. The most fundamental and basic part of human psyche, the id, knows no judgments of value, no good or evil. Types of Extrinsic Motivation based on the degree to which a regulation and its underlying value have been internalized. As many as 44 different defense mechanisms have been described, although most listings focus on a smaller number of operations. Notes on some schizoid mechanisms. screen, then either idealizing them or feeling persecuted, Projective Projective identification is a term introduced by Melanie Klein and then widely adopted in psychoanalytic psychotherapy. These internalised introjects or imagoes form the basis of the baby’s ego. Her ideas elucidated how infants processed their anxieties around feeding and relating to others as objects and part-objects. In this respect – the advocates of this interpretation continue – Freud followed and developed in a highly original way the genealogical account of morality previously proposed by Friedrich Nietzsche. Identification presumes the child's cognitive ability to recognize the variety of role dimensions that exist in interactions with others, and involves the capacity of the self to model itself after the object influenced by fantasy and affect. It is also recognized (Horowitz, 1986; Rycroft, 1968) that intense stress, such as danger to life and limb, can precede the imposition of a defense mechanism. It places less emphasis on biological based drives and more importance on interpersonal relationships (e.g. Rose, J. Its diagnostic relevance has been recognized by the inclusion of defense levels and individual defense mechanisms as a proposed axis in DSM-IV, the current version of the diagnostic manual of the American Psychiatric Association (1994). Freudian views admit two radically different interpretations as far as the objectivity of morality is concerned. Uwe Hentschel, ... Gudmund Smith, in Advances in Psychology, 2004. The definition then, as it is currently, is an acceptance and incorporation of the beliefs or standards of others into one’s own world view or schema. The individual's experiences of gratification and frustration influence affective states and determine the degree to which self-representation is flexible, true, and complex. Projective Identification takes projection one stage further. The baby, in his phantasy, splits the mother’s breast into the Good Breast that feeds and nourishes, and the Bad Breast that withholds and persecutes the baby. It remained for his daughter to do so. The unconscious process of splitting, projection and introjection is an attempt to ease paranoid anxieties of persecution, internally and externally. Klein, M. (1921). However, this distinction is relative, for repression may be directed against the memory of a painful external event, while denial may play a role in the adherence to inner, wish-fulfilling fantasies. that she uses to describe the developmental stage that occurs in an infant’s When the values for Factor 1, indicative of immature defense, are highest, those for Factor 2, on which mature defenses are loaded, are low, and vice versa. 1). Object relations theory is a variation of psychoanalytic theory. The Oedipal crisis will morph in the Depressive Position into one of separation Integrated regulation represents a relatively full sense of autonomy, volition, and personal commitment, with introjection representing a relative lack of these qualities (Fig. Her classical monograph (A. Freud, 1946) stands at the watershed between the formative period of psychoanalysis and the emergence of ego psychology. E.L. Deci, in Reference Module in Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Psychology, 2017. P. Cramer, J.H. Vaillant (1977, p. 7) likened them to “an oyster [which], confronted with a grain of sand, creates a pearl.” This recognition has stimulated the search for a chronological, developmental, or adaptive hierarchy of defenses. Although the last three all represent internal motivation, they vary in the degree to which the behaviors they motivate are autonomous. In these regards, then, one can now see how the study of joy and delight provided a starting point into an examination of how to facilitate optimal motivation for even the mundane tasks we encounter each day of our lives. Introjection is a psychoanalytic concept referring to the psychic process whereby objects from the external world – prototypically parental objects – are taken into the ego, internalized. While the boy’s main anxiety object is the castrating father, the girl’s is the persecutory, almost magical mother. Thus, Klein would say that infants who fall asleep while sucking on their fingers are fantasizing about having their mother’s good breast inside themselves. She also delineated between the experiences of girls and boys and gave more power to the mother.eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'simplypsychology_org-leader-3','ezslot_24',621,'0','0'])); In the Kleinian Oedipal stage, a world of part-object phantasies, boys want to protect their mother’s insides (her womb, or stomach) from their father’s aggressive penis. Ego identity, borrowed from Erikson (1959b), as the overall organization of introjections and identifications under the synthesizing influence of the ego. Rather than It is less concerned with the child's real experience and focuses on the force of introjects and fantasies. This can be a defense mechanism where one takes on attributes of a strong other person who is able to cope with the current threat. eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'simplypsychology_org-medrectangle-4','ezslot_6',859,'0','0'])); Through analysing young children, Klein felt she was able to discover vital developmental stages missed by her peers who only analysed adults. Maria Torok defends this meaning in her 1968 essay The Illness of Mourning and the Fantasy of the Exquisite Corpse where she argues that Sigmund Freud and Melanie Kl… Notably, then, whereas supports for autonomy and competence are particularly important for maintaining intrinsic motivation for an activity, supports for relatedness are also important for internalization. The same affect, however, which has not completely lost its strength, can become an unconscious source of energy for the formation of neurotic symptoms. The former example, of introjection, is about controlling oneself, and the process bears considerable similarity to being controlled by other people. Indeed, while Freudian drive theory sprung from his Life Instinct (Eros), Klein’s theories grew from her focus on the Death Instinct (Thanatos), which Freud himself never fully explored. 22.). SDT uses the concept of introjection to refer to the type of internalization that leads to this internally pressured regulation. Integrated regulation represents a relatively full sense of volition and personal commitment, with introjection representing a relative lack of these qualities (Fig. Deci and Ryan’s self-determination theory (SDT) proposed that intrinsic motivation is invariantly self-determination but that extrinsic motivation can vary greatly in the degree to which it is self-determination. Projection was the opposite of introjection. ... Melanie Klein emphasize a triad of maneuvers that are key: control, contempt, and triumph. Nonetheless, even granting all this, it is difficult to see how one can develop from highly idiosyncratic and personal relationships or attitudes of the child a set of abstract moral norms binding human beings as human beings or persons as persons. Subsequently there have been several attempts to provide an exhaustive cataloging of the many varieties of defense, with incomplete agreement across the various listings. 55). At that time, the term “construct” still resided in psychology’s preconscious, and. Moses N. Ikiugu PhD, OTR/L, in Psychosocial Conceptual Practice Models in Occupational Therapy, 2007. In the first phase of his construction of the ego apparatus, Freud (1894, 1896) described the role of repression and later that of defense in general in modifying traumatic ideas, with the potentially pathological mechanism of defense cutting off an unbearable idea from its affect. Introjection is a term first used by Sigmund Freud to describe how the individual creates and separates aspects of his/her personality. the mother) is an extension of the baby, therefore in his omnipotent phantasy, it can be controlled by him. These mechanisms can help you avoid feelings of unpleasantness … Schizoid refers to the central defense mechanism: splitting, the vigilant separation of the good object from the bad object. Hence, a system of morality is justified, if at all, not by its correspondence to the preexisting reality, but by bringing about a state of social equilibrium. When this has occurred, people will feel fully autonomous as they enact an extrinsically motivated behavior, for it would then emanate from their integrated sense of self. months – when a child comes to terms with the reality of the world and its In later life, we see the same process in adults projecting their unwanted fears and hatred onto other people, resulting in racism, war and genocide. This important contrast—between what might be thought of as self-control versus self-regulation—is highlighted in the SDT model of extrinsic motivation. SDT uses the concept of introjection to refer to the type of internalization that leads to this internally pressured regulation. Encouraged and trained by her mentors – Sandor Ferenczi in Budapest and Karl Abraham in Berlin - she was considered a theoretician as opposed to a clinician, basing her work on experience (clinical and personal) and an extraordinary gift for creative insight rather than scientific discovery. Evidence shows, for example, that even during children’s years in elementary school, their intrinsic motivation tends to become weaker with each passing year. Objects can be both external (a physical person or body part) and internal, comprising emotional images and representations of an external object (e.g. The In particular, when a person introjects or goes through the process of introjection, they generally create the superego, the ruling moral force or conscience that helps keep the id (the pleasure seeking aspect of the self) at bay. She added: "Ghosts really like people, don't they?" ... introjection is a psychological defense mechanism where the subject replicates in themselves behaviors, attributes or other fragments of the surrounding world, especially of other people. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 16, 145-174. Various studies have examined how the social conditions within which a regulation is internalized affect how fully it is internalized and, thus, how autonomous the subsequent behavior will be. It may be noticed that Vaillant placed most of the classical defense mechanisms as listed and described by A. Freud (1946) on Level III. Even though the most spectacular instances of defense had come from the clinic, defenses are observed in psychologically unimpaired and nondistressed human beings. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 11, 24-39. Notably then, whereas supports for autonomy and competence are particularly important for maintaining intrinsic motivation for an activity, supports for relatedness are also important for internalization. As such, people do these behaviors quite autonomously even though the behaviors themselves are not inherently satisfying. Klein stressed the importance of the first 4 or 6 months after birth. When she wrote of the dynamic fantasy life of infants, she did not suggest that neonates could put thoughts into words. Projection is thus cognitively more complex than displacement. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. 1). In 1893 a new construct was introduced in psychology, that of repression (Freud, 1893/1964). Introjection is to a great … Of course, Freud used the concept identification in different ways, as have … and internalization as defense mechanisms, and … Children must begin to interact congenially with playmates, then to do school work they do not find interesting, and eventually, as adults, to hold gainful employment and function within the laws of society. In contrast, there are behaviors that people do not find interesting but that have become meaningful and important for their own self-selected goals, desires, and personal life plans. The child's relation to an object (e.g. Introjection is the process by which what is outside oneself is misinterpreted as coming from the inside. The construct of internalization can be traced back at least 150 years to the early writings of Freud, who conceptualized it as a component of his defense mechanism of introjection. Narrative of a child analysis: The conduct of the psychoanalysis of children as seen in the treatment of a ten year old boy (No. Klein herself wrote: ‘My method presupposes that I have been from the beginning willing to attract to myself the negative as well as the positive transference’. For example, a young man is asked to perform in a spelling bee because of how well he would represent the school. The regulation of these behaviors is certainly internal to the people, but it does not exhibit the qualities of volition or autonomy that, for example, are so evident in intrinsic motivation. Central to object relations theory is the notion of splitting, which can be described as the mental separation of objects into "good" and "bad" parts and the subsequent repression of the "bad," or anxiety-provoking, aspects (Klein, 1932; 1935). This mechanism represents the redirection of negative attitudes, anger, resentment towards a person, towards himself – Displacement – involves redirecting feelings towards an object to another that has features similar to the first. Anna Freud (1946) described ten prominent defense mechanisms that had emerged from the psychoanalytic literature by that time: regression, repression, reaction formation, isolation, undoing, projection, introjection, turning against the self, reversal, and sublimation. (The International Psycho-analytical Library, No. Klein’s (1946) concept of Projective Identification is credited with widening the notion of countertransference, particularly though the work of Bion. Melanie Klein wrote a paper in 1946 called “Notes on Some Schizoid Mechanisms” in which she first mentioned the phrase “projective identification”. (reaction formation). A contribution to the psychogenesis of manic-depressive states. Klein, M. (1961). Recent contributions recognize that defenses do more than reduce arousal. The regulation of the behavior is not yet fully integrated with the individual's motivations, cognitions, and affects into a coherent whole, reflected by the fact that the individual does not really want to perform the activity and does not choose to do it. In other words, SDT proposes that regulations can be internalized more or less fully, such that people will, to differing degrees, accept the regulations as personally important for themselves and, thus, be more or less autonomous in enacting them. Toward the end of Freud’s career, a virtual catalogue of defense mechanisms had emerged. Development of Conscience in the Child. Klein, born in Austria to a Jewish family, moved widely across Europe to escape the rise of fascism and as a result was a member of the Budapest and Berlin Societies before escaping to England in 1927. In terms of body image, as outlined by Thompson and colleagues, it is the acceptance of current societal standards of appearance and attractiveness into one’s own approach to managing and thinking about one’s appearance. Infants usually introject good objects as a protection against anxiety, but they also introject … As such, there will be differences in the extent to which people do a behavior because they want to rather than because they believe that they have to, and this will reflect the degree to which the regulation has been internalized. By providing the kinds of supports that help to maintain intrinsic motivation, one can also facilitate internalization and integration that will enhance the quality of motivation and engagement with the more mundane activities as well as the more interesting ones. Defenses, she recognized, reduce or silence internal turbulence. What is obstructed from view is filled in on the basis of plausible first-order inference. A person who lacked self-confidence would project skills perceived to be lacking to others. (Klein, 1946). Perhaps because she challenged him, Freud dismissed Klein, later defending his daughter Anna against her. It is important to realize however that when extrinsic motivation is fully internalized it does not typically become intrinsic motivation. One reason this relative-autonomy continuum is so important is that it addresses an important problem about internal regulation of behavior. In 1994, the Defensive Functioning Scale (DFS) was added to the DSM-IV as an axis for further study (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). This underlies behaviors that are performed out of guilt, ego involvement, or other kinds of internal pressures. Specifically, there are behaviors that people force themselves to do because they think they should do them and know they will feel guilty if they do not. var pfHeaderImgUrl = '';var pfHeaderTagline = '';var pfdisableClickToDel = 0;var pfHideImages = 0;var pfImageDisplayStyle = 'right';var pfDisablePDF = 0;var pfDisableEmail = 0;var pfDisablePrint = 0;var pfCustomCSS = '';var pfBtVersion='2';(function(){var js,pf;pf=document.createElement('script');pf.type='text/javascript';pf.src='//';document.getElementsByTagName('head')[0].appendChild(pf)})(); This workis licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 Unported License. In 1926, Freud (1926/1963) undertook to differentiate the concepts of repression and defense. As it turns out, many of the activities people do are not intrinsically motivated, especially from the time they move out of early childhood and face increasing demands to assume social roles and accept responsibilities. These two cases of extrinsically motivated behavior vary in the degree to which they are relatively autonomous. Unlike projection, in Projective Identification there is a blurring of boundaries. Introjection as a defense mechanism refers to the internalization of mental representations attributed to an external object, or the so-called introject, introjected object, or internal object (Rycroft 1995). When the process functions optimally, individuals will have transformed an externally regulated extrinsic motivation into an internally regulated extrinsic motivation by integrating the regulation and its value into their sense of self. – Returning to one’s own person – can be considered a more mature method of introjection. At the lowest level, the mechanisms distort reality, at the highest, they bring about its integration with interpersonal relationships and feelings, At intermediate points, defenses alter distress and modify the experience of feelings, and they may appear odd, inappropriate, or socially undesirable from an outside point of view. In his project for a neurologically based psychology, Freud (1954) also conceptualized a hypothetical neuronal network as a generalized model of defense. Introjected regulation is not self-determined because the behaviors are pressured and controlled even though that pressure and control come from an internal source. According to Klein, this is the psychic defense mechanism whereby infants split off unacceptable parts of themselves, project them onto another object, and finally introject them in an altered form. To be self-regulating, people must make internal what was initially external. eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'simplypsychology_org-leader-2','ezslot_20',866,'0','0'])); Melanie Klein (1932) is one of the key figures in psychoanalysis. She called these two What he did was describe the manifestations of repression which he then proceeded to link to their antecedents and consequences. Intrinsic motivation and fully integrated extrinsic motivation are the two bases for autonomous or self-determined behaviors. FIGURE 1. Factor B is characterized by mature defense mechanisms and can be designated as related to impulse defense. Introjection occurs as a coping mechanism when we take on attributes of other people who seem better able to cope with the situation than we do. It is exacted in the form of reduced awareness of both self and environment. Ryan and Deci's Self-Determination Theory (SDT) proposed that intrinsic motivation is invariantly autonomous but that extrinsic motivation can vary greatly in the degree to which it is autonomous. Internalization is the process of taking in a value or regulation and making it one’s own. For example, a boy who takes out the garbage only because he knows his mother will praise him for doing so is extrinsically motivated because the behavior is instrumental to the separate consequence. In sum, self-determination, which is based in intrinsic motivation and integrated extrinsic motivation, has been associated with a variety of positive performance and adjustment outcomes and has been found to depend on interpersonal supports for relatedness, competence, and autonomy. Porcerelli, in Encyclopedia of Mental Health (Second Edition), 2016. Klein’s (1921) theory of the unconscious focused on the relationship between the mother–infant rather than the father–infant one, and inspired the central concepts of the Object Relations School within psychoanalysis. The regulation of these behaviors is certainly internal to these people, but it does not exhibit the qualities of volition or autonomy that, for example, are so evident in intrinsic motivation.

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